This resource has undergone expert review.

How schools can protect Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students from drug harms

  • How schools can guide students against drug use and related harms
Year: Year 7–8, Year 9–10, Year 11–12
Targeted Drugs: , ,

Key Messages

How teachers and schools can protect students against alcohol and drug related harms

The school’s social environment is a key influence in the development of young people and is an important setting to promote health and wellbeing. Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander young people have indicated that schools and teachers are their preferred and most frequently accessed source of health-related information.

School-based factors, such as teaching approaches and the school environment, create a greater sense of community, attachment and performance, which are associated with reduced alcohol and drug related harms. Most important is to create a school culture in which Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander students feel welcome. This can be achieved when schools and teachers promote positive cultural identity, a positive school environment without violence, racism and discrimination, and have high expectations for their students’ potential to achieve.


What can schools and teachers do?

Believe, and express beliefs, that each student has a core learning capacity. Set high and realistic expectations of achievements for all students.
Encourage students to engage in extracurricular activities (e.g. sports or cultural activities).
Incorporate and celebrate cultural identity and diversity in all school processes and activities in and outside the classroom.
Promote Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander role models and value Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander staff within the school.
Support Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander students, their family and community.
Encourage high levels of community involvement in the planning and delivery of school processes and curricula. For example, by getting to know the parents and community members, and valuing the input of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander teachers and Aboriginal Education Workers.
Employ and support quality teachers who are trained and/or have experience in cross-cultural settings and can tailor their teaching to the cultural background of the students.
Build relationships with students that have warmth, humour, are friendly and supportive, and set high, but reasonable expectations for students.
Integrate Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander perspectives, ideas and content in the lesson plans that are relevant to the students. This can, for example, be achieved by involving parents and the community in the development of the curriculum.



This factsheet was developed by researchers at the NHMRC Centre of Research Excellence in Mental Health and Substance Use, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW Sydney (2017). Input was received from external Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experts on the Expert Advisory Group.

The summary of what teachers and the school can do is based on conclusions reached by the following studies:

Harslett, M., Harrison, B., Godfrey, J., Partington, G., & Richer, K. (2000). Teacher perceptions of the characteristics of effective teachers of Aboriginal middle school students. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 25(2).

Ockenden, L. (2014). Positive learning environments for Indigenous children and young people. Resource sheet no. 33. Produced by the Closing the Gap Clearinghouse. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare & Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

McCuaig, L., & Nelson, A. (2012). Engaging Indigenous students through school-based health education. Resource sheet no. 12. Canberra: Closing the Gap Clearinghouse.


Positive Choices artwork by Jenna Lee (Larrakia artist, Gilimbaa).