Sussman, S., Sun, P., Rohrbach, L. A., & Spruijt-Metz, D. (2012). One-year outcomes of a drug abuse prevention program for older teens and emerging adults: Evaluating a motivational interviewing booster component. Health Psychology, 31, 476-485.
Rohrbach, L. A., Gunning, M., Sun, P., & Sussman, S. (2010). The Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND) Dissemination Trial: Implementation Fidelity and Immediate Outcomes. Prevention Science, 11, 77-88.
Valente, T. W., Ritt-Olson, A., Stacy, A., Unger, J. B., Okamoto, J., & Sussman, S. (2007). Peer acceleration: effects of a social network tailored substance abuse prevention program among high-risk adolescents. Addiction, 102, 1804-1815.
*Note: In this study benefits were only observed in an enhanced version of Project TND which involved additional group interaction. This version of the program reduced substance use for students who had peer networks with low substance use. However students with friends who reported substance use were likely to increase use.
Sun, W., Skara, S., Sun, P., Dent, C. W., & Sussman, S. (2006). Project Towards No Drug Abuse: Long-term substance use outcomes evaluation. Prev Med, 42, 188-192.
Dent, C. W., Sussman, S., & Stacy, A. W. (2001). Project Towards No Drug Abuse: generalizability to a general high school sample. Preventive Medicine, 32, 514-520.
The benefits of Project TND have varied from trial to trial. The most consistent benefits are for “hard drug” use (encompassing cocaine, inhalants, stimulants, ecstasy, depressants, heroin and steroids), which have been observed in 7 studies and appear to be maintained long-term (up to 5 years). Reductions in alcohol and tobacco use were observed less consistently. There was evidence in one study that an interactive version of the program may increase substance use in students with substance using friends. A critical review of past research analysing the program's effectiveness has concluded there is little evidence to support its efficacy. See the paper below for full details:
Gorman, D. M. (2014). Is Project Towards No Drug Abuse (Project TND) an evidence-based drug and violence prevention program? A review and reappraisal of the evaluation studies. The journal of primary prevention, 35, 217-232.
However, one study provides important insight into the impact of contextual and provider-level factors influencing implementation fidelity. These effects should be considered in evaluations of program effectiveness. See the paper below for full details:
Little, M. A., Sussman, S., Sun, P., & Rohrbach, L. A. (2013). The effects of implementation fidelity in the Towards No Drug Abuse dissemination trial. Health Education, 113, 281-296.
Project TND is included in SAMSHA's National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (USA).
Sussman, S., Dent, C.W., Stacy, A.W., Sun, P., Craig, S., Simon, T.R., Burton, D., & Flay, B.R. (1993). Project Towards No Tobacco Use: One-year behavior outcomes.American Journal of Public Health, 83, 1245-1250
Dent, C.W., Sussman, S., Stacy, A.W., Craig, S., Burton, D., & Flay, B.R. (1995). Two-year behavior outcomes of Project Towards No Tobacco Use. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 63, 676-677.
Sussman, S., Dent, C.W., Stacy, A.W., Hodgson, C., Burton, D., & Flay, B.R. (1993). Project Towards No Tobacco Use: Implementation, process and posttest knowledge evaluation. Health Education Research: Theory and Practice, 8, 109-123.
Wang, L.Y., Crossett, L.S., Lowry, R, Sussman, S., & Dent, C.W. (2001).Cost-effectiveness of a school-based tobacco-use prevention program. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 155, 1043-1050.