Drugs A to Z

This resource has undergone expert review.

Cocaine: Factsheet

  • Dangers of cocaine
  • Avoiding Drugs? You're in the majority.
Year: Year 9–10, Year 11–12
Targeted Drugs:

What is Cocaine?

In Australia, Cocaine is known as coke, blow, charlie, C, dust, flake, nose candy, snow, white, crack, rock, freebase.

Cocaine comes in three main forms:

  • A paste which is often off-white or light brown 
  • A powder which is often white or off-white 
  • A white or off-white crystal rock known as crack cocaine.

In Australia, cocaine is most commonly in a powder form which is often snorted. As with all powder drugs, it is often sold ‘cut’ (mixed) with other white powder substances which can sometimes be harmful in their own right. 

Personal Stories

How many young people have tried it?

According to the 2017 Australian secondary schools' survey, 1 in 50 students (2%) aged 12–17 used cocaine last year.

What are the effects?

When snorted or injected, cocaine quickly produces an intense ‘rush’. This feeling or ‘high’ doesn’t last very long — usually around 30–45 minutes if snorted.

Effects of cocaine vary, but may include:


  • Enlarged pupils
  • Irregular heart beat
  • Not feeling hungry
  • Increased energy and confidence
  • Feeling of euphoria (a "high")
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Anxiety and panic attacks
  • A "comedown" or crash (see glossary)
  • Aggressive behaviour 
  • Headaches and dizziness
  • Twitches and tremors
  • Insomnia
  • Paranoia (feeling extremely suspicious and frightened)
  • Hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that aren't really there)
  • Delusions (strong beliefs that do not reflect reality)
  • Psychosis (see glossary)
  • Overdose.


  • Dependence (addiction)
  • Nasal and sinus problems including damage to the nasal septum
  • Depression
  • Heart damage
  • Lung problems
  • Kidney failure
  • Increased risk of strokes and seizures.

Evidence Base

This factsheet was developed following expert review by researchers at the Matilda Centre for Research in Mental Health and Substance Use, The University of Sydney, and the National Drug & Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW.

See detailed attachment for a list of sources for this information. 

  • Credit to the Home Office for quotes adapted from Talk to Frank
  • Credit to 2&2 for the 'Avoiding Drugs?' infographic.

Page last reviewed: 8 May 2019.